Unionizing the Jungles: Labor and Community in the Twentieth-Century Meat-packing Industry

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Lisa M. Fine

They devised better methods to cure pork and used lard components to make soap and candles. By Cincinnati led all other cities in pork processing and proclaimed itself Porkopolis. Chicago won that title during the Civil War. It was able to do so because most Midwestern farmers also raised livestock, and railroads tied Chicago to its Midwestern hinterland and to the large urban markets on the East Coast. In addition, Union army contracts for processed pork and live cattle supported packinghouses on the branches of the Chicago River and the railroad stockyards which shipped cattle.

Scary Facts About The Meatpacking Industry!

To alleviate the problem of driving cattle and hogs through city streets, the leading packers and railroads incorporated the Union Stock Yard and Transit Company in and built an innovative facility south of the city limits. Accessible to all railroads serving Chicago, the huge stockyard received 3 million cattle and hogs in and 12 million just 20 years later.

To promote their dressed beef in eastern cities, they built branch sales offices and cold storage warehouses. When railroads balked at investing in refrigerator cars, they purchased their own and leased them to the railroads. Thus, Chicago's Big Three packers—Philip Armour, Gustavus Swift, and Nelson Morris—were in a position to influence livestock prices at one end of this complex industrial chain and the price of meat products at the other end.

In the Chicago packinghouses employed 25, of the country's 68, packinghouse employees. Although the courts failed to indict, the National Packing Company voluntarily dissolved in In the Packer Consent Decree of , the Big Three agreed to sell their holdings in stockyards, food-related companies, cold-storage facilities, and the retail meat business.

The packers faced challenges from their employees. First organized by the Knights of Labor , packinghouse workers in Chicago struck for the eight-hour day in , but public reaction to violence in Haymarket Square ended that strike.

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Unionizing the Jungles: Labor and Community in the Twentieth-Century Meat-packing Industry

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