The Living Constitution (Inalienable Rights)

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Perpetuities and monopolies. Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of a free state and shall not be allowed. Recurrence to fundamental principles. A frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty. Other rights of the people. The enumeration of rights in this Article shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people.

Rights of victims of crime. Victims of crime or acts of delinquency shall be treated with dignity and respect by the criminal justice system. When the crime or act of delinquency is one against or involving the person of the victim or is equivalent to a felony property crime, the victim is entitled to the following rights:. Except as otherwise provided herein, the General Assembly shall further provide, by general law, the procedure whereby a victim may assert the rights provided in this section. The victim or, if the victim is a minor, is legally incapacitated, or deceased, a family member, guardian, or legal custodian may assert the rights provided in this section.

The procedure shall be by motion to the court of jurisdiction within the same criminal or juvenile proceeding giving rise to the rights. The victim, family member, guardian, or legal custodian have the right to counsel at this hearing but do not have the right to counsel provided by the State. If the matter involves an allegation that the district attorney failed to comply with the rights of a victim when obligated to so do by law, the victim must first afford the district attorney with jurisdiction over the criminal action an opportunity to resolve any issue in a timely manner.

Nothing in this section shall be construed as creating a claim for money damages, or any cause of action, against the State, a county, a municipality, or any of the agencies, instrumentalities, or officers and employees thereof. The failure or inability of any person to provide a right or service provided under this section may not be used by a defendant in a criminal case, an inmate, or any other accused as a ground for relief in any trial, appeal, postconviction litigation, habeas corpus, civil action, or any similar criminal or civil proceeding.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to provide grounds for a victim i to appeal any decision made in a criminal or juvenile proceeding; ii to challenge any verdict, sentence, or adjudication; iii to participate as a party in any proceeding; or iv to obtain confidential juvenile records.

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Nothing in this section shall be construed to restrict the power of the district attorney, or the inherent authority of the court. The General Assembly may prescribe general laws to further define and implement this section. Right to hunt, fish, and harvest wildlife. The right of the people to hunt, fish, and harvest wildlife is a valued part of the State's heritage and shall be forever preserved for the public good.

The people have a right, including the right to use traditional methods, to hunt, fish, and harvest wildlife, subject only to laws enacted by the General Assembly and rules adopted pursuant to authority granted by the General Assembly to i promote wildlife conservation and management and ii preserve the future of hunting and fishing. Public hunting and fishing shall be a preferred means of managing and controlling wildlife.

Nothing herein shall be construed to modify any provision of law relating to trespass, property rights, or eminent domain. Legislative power. The legislative power of the State shall be vested in the General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Number of Senators. The Senate shall be composed of 50 Senators, biennially chosen by ballot.

Senate districts; apportionment of Senators. The Senators shall be elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session convening after the return of every decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, shall revise the senate districts and the apportionment of Senators among those districts, subject to the following requirements:. Number of Representatives.

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot. Representative districts; apportionment of Representatives. The Representatives shall be elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session convening after the return of every decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, shall revise the representative districts and the apportionment of Representatives among those districts, subject to the following requirements:.

Qualifications for Senator.

Each Senator, at the time of his election, shall be not less than 25 years of age, shall be a qualified voter of the State, and shall have resided in the State as a citizen for two years and in the district for which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his election. Qualifications for Representative. Each Representative, at the time of his election, shall be a qualified voter of the State, and shall have resided in the district for which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his election.

The election for members of the General Assembly shall be held for the respective districts in and every two years thereafter, at the places and on the day prescribed by law. Term of office.

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The term of office of Senators and Representatives shall commence on the first day of January next after their election. Every vacancy occurring in the membership of the General Assembly by reason of death, resignation, or other cause shall be filled in the manner prescribed by law. The General Assembly shall meet in regular session in and every two years thereafter on the day prescribed by law.

Neither house shall proceed upon public business unless a majority of all of its members are actually present. The President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall convene the General Assembly in extra session by their joint proclamation upon receipt by the President of the Senate of written requests therefor signed by three-fifths of all the members of the Senate and upon receipt by the Speaker of the House of Representatives of written requests therefor signed by three-fifths of all the members of the House of Representatives.

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Oath of members. Each member of the General Assembly, before taking his seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Constitution and laws of the United States and the Constitution of the State of North Carolina, and will faithfully discharge his duty as a member of the Senate or House of Representatives.

The Constitution: The Supreme Law of the Land Constitutional Republic – Inalienable Rights

President of the Senate. The Lieutenant Governor shall be President of the Senate and shall preside over the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is equally divided. Other officers of the Senate. The Senate shall elect from its membership a President Pro Tempore, who shall become President of the Senate upon the failure of the Lieutenant Governor-elect to qualify, or upon succession by the Lieutenant Governor to the office of Governor, or upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of the President of the Senate, and who shall serve until the expiration of his term of office as Senator.

During the physical or mental incapacity of the President of the Senate to perform the duties of his office, or during the absence of the President of the Senate, the President Pro Tempore shall preside over the Senate. The Senate shall elect its other officers. Officers of the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall elect its Speaker and other officers. Compensation and allowances. The members and officers of the General Assembly shall receive for their services the compensation and allowances prescribed by law.

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An increase in the compensation or allowances of members shall become effective at the beginning of the next regular session of the General Assembly following the session at which it was enacted. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which shall be printed and made public immediately after the adjournment of the General Assembly.

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Any member of either house may dissent from and protest against any act or resolve which he may think injurious to the public or to any individual, and have the reasons of his dissent entered on the journal. Record votes. Upon motion made in either house and seconded by one fifth of the members present, the yeas and nays upon any question shall be taken and entered upon the journal.


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Powers of the General Assembly. Each house shall be judge of the qualifications and elections of its own members, shall sit upon its own adjournment from day to day, and shall prepare bills to be enacted into laws.


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The two houses may jointly adjourn to any future day or other place. Either house may, of its own motion, adjourn for a period not in excess of three days. Style of the acts.

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Action on bills. Except as provided by subsections 2 through 6 of this section, all bills shall be read three times in each house and shall be signed by the presiding officer of each house before being presented to the Governor. If the Governor approves, the Governor shall sign it and it shall become a law; but if not, the Governor shall return it with objections, together with a veto message stating the reasons for such objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, which shall enter the objections and veto message at large on its journal, and proceed to reconsider it.

If after such reconsideration three-fifths of the members of that house present and voting shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections and veto message, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if approved by three-fifths of the members of that house present and voting, it shall become a law notwithstanding the objections of the Governor.