European Media Governance: National and Regional Dimensions
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One of the first actors was the Bauer imprint today: Bauer Media Group , which entered the market in In addition, Mecom Group from via its subsidy Orkla Media Group , which is controlled by the British investor David Montgomery, began to play an important role. As of today, Poland has the biggest publishing market in Eastern Europe.
In , there were 15 national and 22 regional daily newspapers as well as weekly publications and two major press agencies — the state owned PAP Polska Agencja Prasowa and the Catholic competitor KAI. But due to wanting sales and a disappointing circulation of In Springer Ringier had a market share of 35,8 percent, making it by far the biggest publishing company in Poland. The company publishes 86 magazines including Auto Moto, Bravo and tv14 as well as 14 online domains including PCformat, Mobial and Flirtbox.
Polskapresse Sp. Its latest annual sales amounted to million Euros, which translates into a market share of 15 percent. The other 49 percent is owned by the Polish state. Table I: Poland's Biggest Newspapers. Public broadcasting Poland has an important, albeit financially instable, public broacdasting sector. TVP Telewizia Polska. TVP is financed by both license fees and advertisement revenues. Every Polish citizen — with the exception of the unemployed, retired and handicapped — is obligated by law to pay an annual license fee of ,80 Zlotys roughly 45 Euros.
However, the TVP group has generated significant losses in the last couple of years because two thirds of all Polish citizens have refused to pay the license fee. In , only one third of Polish households claimed to own a television set.
European Media Governance
Even among this group only 1,2 million households actually paid the license fee. Two years prior, a newly established government agency officially started the licensing process for national and local television channels.
One of the precious licenses went to Polsat, which in had already begun to broadcast a Polish language programm out of the Netherlands. Owner Zygmunt Solorz-Zaks is, according to the annual Forbes ranking, one of the riches Polish citizens, with an estimated net worth of roughly two billion Euros. Its only rival is the TVN group, founded in The rest of the market is shared among a handful of smaller competitors. In contrast to the press, the television sector is mainly controlled by Polish companies.
When, in , German media corporation Axel Springer tried to acquire parts of TV Polsat, the takeover was prohibited by national antitrust bodies. TV Polsat By , four years after it went on air, TV Polsat had already reached one quarter of the entire Polish television audience. The Polish radio landscape is dominated by privately operated stations.
In , the four national public broadcast radio channels had a combined market share of 21 percent. Shrinking advertising revenues as well as the refusal of many Poles to pay license fees have lead to a weak position of public radio in the country. Just as in the publishing sector, private radio in Poland is being dominated by a German media company, namely the Bauer Media Group. Polskie Radio Public radio has a great tradition in Poland.
From on, except during the war years, it has never ceased broadcasting. Besides the national Polske Radio S. Reaching more than one quarter of all listeners it is the biggest radio group in Poland. Radio Zet Controlling 15 percent of the market, Radio Zet is the second most popular channel in Poland.
It is owned by the french media corporation Lagardere. Similar to RMF, Zet airs mainly news and information programs. Since it has partnered with CNN in order to deliver premium news content. Radio Maryia Probably the most controversial channel in the last decades has been the fundamentalist-conservative non-profit station Radio Maryia, founded in by Father Tadeusz Rydzyk. Critics argue that Rydzyk has used his channel to foster nationalism and Antisemitic bigotry. It has been on air since and is broadcasted within ten major cities. As in many of its neigboring countries, prior to the mid s, the Polish internet was mainly an academic network.
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While starting in some companies started to launch their own homepages, regular citizens hardly used the web before the late s. This changed when the the Polish Telecom began to offer cheap unlimited broadband rates. As a result of massive investments by the European Union in the expansion of broadband access — especially in poorer regions in East Poland — more than half of all Polish citizens are online today out of people over sixty years of age, however, only ten percent are internet users.
The number of smart phones has skyrocketed between and from one to five million. As in many European countries, Google is dominating the online market in Poland. With its search engine as well as the video and blogging portals YouTube and Blogspot, the company controls three of the biggest online properties in Poland. Another major player is the South African media company Naspers, which in the wake of acquiring the Polish Grupa Allegro in , now owns several popular E-commerce sites.
The market for online news media, however, is in the hands of Polish companies. Article 14 of the Polish constitution from states the freedom of the press and communications. Article 54 grants the freedom of opinion and prohibits any kind of censorship or influence upon the press by state actors. The most important body concerned with regulating the media sector is the Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji KRRit , which is responsible for the controlling and licensing of television channels.
Out of the five members of the KRRiT council, one is elected by members of the Senate, two are elected by members of the Sejm, the lower house, and another two are appointed by the President. While in theory the KRRiT is an independent agency, there have been frequent accusations that it really represents the interests of the political parties that elects its members. The legal framework for regulating the television landscape is the Broadcasting Act of , which in was modified according to guidelines set out by the European Union.
According to the law, both public broadcasting as well as privately owned channels should have a focus on information and entertainment, educate its viewers and foster respect for Polish national culture. In theory, all content should represent Christian values and shine light on social and public grievances.
National and Regional Dimensions
Also the Broadcasting Act lays out the rules regarding the on-air-time that each political party receives in news programs. According to the Television Without Frontiers initiative, the protection of minorities and the access of European media companies to the Polish market were added the Broadcasting Act in Country Profile: Poland. Table IV: Gross revenues of radio-television, Source: European Audiovisual Observatory. Le Monde , January 9. Bourbon J- C. La Croix , January Report for the Ministry of Culture and Communication. January Le Monde , December 8. Duretz M. Le Monde , September Fabre C.
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Le Monde , June Le Nouvel Observateur , October Hanne I. Le Monde , December 4. Economic aid for book]. CNC, ]. Laurent S. Le Monde , October Oury A. Le Monde , April Rauline N. Les Echos , April 28l. Renault E. Le Figaro , October Revel R. L'Express , October Schmitt F. Les Echos , February 1. Vaudano M. Le Monde , May 7. Gladkova A. Moscow: Faculty of Journalism Publ. Le Floch P.
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