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The thin-film waveguides offer over an order of magnitude improvement in optical confinement and bending radius compared to conventional LN waveguides. The thin-film technology can also be implemented on versatile silicon substrates.

Lasers, Optics & Electro-Optics | Southwest Research Institute

Harnessing the improved confinement, a variety of miniaturized and efficient photonic devices has been realized. The state of the art of thin-film LN integrated photonics is reviewed, focusing on heterogeneous integration, electrooptic modulation, and nonlinear frequency conversion.

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The potential applications and associated challenges of next-generation LN-based integrated photonics are discussed. Article : Date of Publication: 17 May DOI: Need Help?

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In this regard, our research efforts have been focused on the design and synthesis of highly efficient nonlinear optical NLO chromophores with the combination of a few highly correlated parameters for photonic applications, such as large molecular b values, good near-IR optical transparency, excellent chemical and photostability, controlled charge-transfer ability, and improved processability in polymers Fig.

We also systematically study how the local dielectric environment and poling-induced acentric ordering can affect the molecular polarization and EO performance of materials.

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Figure 2: Design and synthesis of highly efficient dipolar chromophores for electro-optic applications. The material chemistry in the development of high performance OEO polymers is to translate the exceptional molecular properties of dipolar chromophores into high EO activities and low optical losses in poled films. There are two major issues that need to be addressed in order to produce highly ordered and thermally stable lattices with high concentrations of NLO chromophores:.

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The click chemistry, such Diels-Alder and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, are also used as the most efficient synthetic tool for postfunctionalization and lattice-hardening of EO polymers. Generating noncentrosymmetric order of nonlinear optical NLO chromophores through electric field poling have been one of the most challenging issues in the research of organic polymeric EO materials.

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Currently the commonly used methods of poling are the contact poling and corona poling, and both techniques impose considerable limitation and challenges to the potential application of organic and polymeric EO materials. For example, in contact poling, severe charge injection from metal electrodes often results in large current that causes dielectric breakdown of the films. Significant challenges also exist in integrating these high activity materials into the silicon nano-photonic devices such as slotted waveguides and photonic crystals.

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  7. Ps stands for the spontaneous polarization of pyro-crystal. To address these challenging problems, we have recently developed a new protocol of pyroelectric poling, in which lithium tantalate LT and lithium niobate LN pyroelectric crystals can be used as a reliable voltage source for the poling of EO polymers.

    About the Electro -Optics and Photonics Unit.

    Heating or cooling the pyroelectric crystals can develop equal but opposite charges on both surfaces of the crystal that are normal to the polar axis. This effect, being widely used in pyroelectric detectors, originates from the perturbed equilibrium between the spontaneous polarization of the pyroelectric crystal and its surface screening charges.

    yxefexeg.gq The unique advantage of this effect is that electric fields and potentials can be generated through modest temperature change of compact-size pyroelectric crystals, and no extra activation process is required. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using electric field generation from pyroelectrics to activate the polarization of amorphous dielectric materials with finite resistivities, and open up new processing strategies of functional dielectrics and their hybrid systems for a broad spectrum of electronic and photonic applications.