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Perceptual systems typically serve to limit the influence of repetitive stimuli through processes such as habituation or desensitization. Such processes may act at multiple levels, from the sense organs to cortex. Gating refers to the relative decrease in response strength to the second stimulus in a sequence compared to the response to a prior stimulus. In some cases, closely spaced stimuli may also lead to increased response, termed facilitation. Excitation and facilitation can also occur with simultaneously presented stimuli, depending on factors such as similarity, proximity, and spatial arrangement.
Many aspects of perception improve with practice, a phenomenon known as perceptual learning PL. Although we are not yet at a point where a single, comprehensive model of PL can be fully specified, recent work suggests that PL involves two mechanisms: external noise exclusion and stimulus enhancement.
However, not all PL is perceptual: PL has also been hypothesized to involve activity in a decision or response unit in which the reweighting of specific representations during decision processes occurs. Therefore, while abnormalities in perceptual learning have been demonstrated in psychopathology, it is important to isolate to the extent possible perceptual from higher-level cognitive processes involved in PL.
Perception interacts closely with attention and, to a certain extent, depends on it. Although perception usually requires some degree of prior attention allocation reductionistically, little perception occurs in coma , the degree of attention required is usually not large.
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Care should be taken not to attribute deficits in perception to deficits in attention, without direct manipulation of attentional function. Cognitive control systems affect perception primarily through control of attention. Perception affects cognitive control through determination of information reaching cognitive control pathways, and through perception of information needed to perform cognitive control tasks. Perceptual information may be encoded in a form that remains accessible over time to other cognitive systems, such as working memory, cognitive control, and declarative memory systems.
This may be seen as the last stage in processing within the perceptual system related to working memory or other systems, or the first stage of processing within the upstream systems. For the purposes of RDoC, encoding of information for working memory, cognitive control, and so on is treated as a property of the perceptual systems. Cognitive systems relevant to other domains e. Definition : Declarative memory is the acquisition or encoding, storage, consolidation, and retrieval of representations of facts and events.
Declarative memory provides the critical substrate for relational representations—i. These representations facilitate the inferential and flexible extraction of new information from these relationships. Declarative memory is mediated by multiple brain networks. It is most often associated with the hippocampus, its interactions with medial temporal lobe MTL cortices, and their interactions with the posterior association cortices involved with, for example, perception, language, and spatial processing.
These interactions provide both the input to the MTL and distributed, lasting representations of the resulting memories. Declarative memory processing is modulated by diencephalic and brain stem systems, including oscillatory coordination. There are also essential interactions between the MTL and both frontal lobe and parietal lobe regions involved in attention, cognitive control, and working memory, especially in effortful, cognitively mediated aspects of encoding and retrieval. Declarative memory is also known to interact with habit and procedural systems through MTL, frontal, and striatal connections.
Declarative memory interacts with emotion, motivation, as well as perceptual processes and other cognitive processes. It is used in service of higher order functions, such as in communication, inferential reasoning, spatial navigation, conscious recollection, and other goal-directed behavior. Definition : Language is a system of shared symbolic representations of the world, the self, and abstract concepts that supports thought and communication.
Language involves a mapping between thought production and sensory representations comprehension via a symbolic system of multiple representations which include prosody, phonology, syntax, orthography and lexical-semantics. Word, sentence, and discourse comprehension and production involves the activation and retrieval from memory of concepts about objects, facts, events and event schemas, social relationships and links among them. At the level of sentences, language comprehension and production further involve the construction of propositional meaning through combinatorial processes that draw upon hierarchical structural representations including syntax.
In text and discourse, propositions are sequenced and structured across causal, spatial, referential and temporal dimensions to form a coherent representation of overall meaning. Formulating and understanding language involves the use of pragmatic and real-world knowledge, as well as non-verbal behaviors, allowing for flexible and effective social interaction.
“You don’t understand anything until you learn it more than one way.”
Finally, while the functional capacity for language is highly specialized in humans, it may draw upon mechanisms and neural substrates that mediate cognition and communication in non-human species. Definition : A system that modulates the operation of other cognitive and emotional systems in the service of goal directed behavior when prepotent modes of responding are not adequate to meet the demands of the current context. Additionally, control processes are engaged in the case of novel contexts, where appropriate responses need to be selected from among competing alternatives.
Cognitive control involves multiple subcomponent processes, including the ability to select, maintain, and update goal representations and performance monitoring and other forms of adaptive regulation. The implementation of these processes includes mechanisms such as response selection and inhibition or suppression. Given that it is essentially a domain-general modulatory system, cognitive control is relevant to the performance of many tasks, such as language and perception.
However, cognitive control is distinct from other mechanisms in systems such as language and perception that coordinate and resolve ambiguity and conflict through local interactions. Cognitive control overlaps with working memory in the specific domain of the updating and maintenance of goal representations.
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Cognitive control is distinct from working memory in so far as working memory is not restricted to the maintenance of goals. Executive attention is a component of cognitive control because both goal selection, and goal updating and representation are central processes in both. Cognitive control is distinct from other forms of attention in so far as attention is more closely associated with input selection. The goal maintenance function of cognitive control is considered to be an essential feature of sustained attention, including sustained selective attention e.
Cognitive control interacts with aspects of motivation and persistence see Positive Valence Workshop. NIMH encourages comments on any aspect of the workshop and proceedings outlined here. Please send comments to: rdoc mail. Subcortical: magnocellular, parvocellular, koniocellular. Non-retinogeniculate: Superior colliculus, Suprachiasmatic nucleus. Local circuitry implicated in contextual fields and association fields responsible for the influence of spatial context on target processing : lateral interactions; top-down interactions.ducyccewrtun.tk
Emerging Trends In Cognitive Systems
Stimulus detection. Discrimination, identification and localization.
Perceptual priming. Visual acuity. Perceptual learning.
Emerging Trends In Cognitive Systems
Insula; Inferior Colliculus. Tone matching; deviance detection, regularity and change detection; McGurk multisensory ; auditory scene perception e. Paired associate learning; delayed recall; transitive inference; acquired equivalence; list and story learning. A Language Production: Naming Verbal descriptions of visual depictions of events and states Linguistic corpus-based analyses of language output.
B Language Comprehension: 1 Offline measures The detection and classification of semantic relationships between words.
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The ability to distinguish between coherent and incoherent sentences and discourse. The ability to answer questions about the content of sentences and discourse. Patterns of eye movements in eye tracking paradigms or motor movements in mouse tracking paradigms to critical words and regions in linguistic input.
Cognitive Systems: Workshop Proceedings
Patterns of eye movements to non-verbal visual stimuli during spoken language comprehension the visual world paradigm. Experimental Manipulations Manipulations of different types of relationships between individual words in priming paradigms. Manipulations of predictability and acceptability, at different levels of representation, in a linguistic input. Manipulations of different types of coherence and cohesion between clauses in discourse. Manipulations of relationships between language and non-verbal behaviors.